目的 探讨胸腺类癌的临床表现，分类与预后的关系，以及手术方式及术后辅助治疗特点，以提高对该病的认识。 方法 回顾性分析北京协和医院1980年1月至2006年1月18例胸腺类癌的外科治疗和随诊结果。开胸探查活检2例，姑息性切除2例，完整切除14例，包括2例上腔静脉系统切除移植人工血管。采用寿命表法计算生存率，用Cox单因素回归模型分析胸腺类癌预后的影响因素。 结果 2例行开胸探查患者分别于术后1年和2年死亡；2例姑息性切除术后患者症状暂时缓解；完整切除患者除1例合并柯兴综合征术后2周死于败血症，其余13例术后完全恢复，随诊5个月至15年良好。全组3年、5年、10年生存率分别为72.6%、60.5%和40.3%。经Cox单因素分析结果：纵隔淋巴结转移(P=0047)、病理类型(P=0000)、手术方式(P=0000)和术后综合治疗(P=0018)是影响预后的因素。 结论 胸腺类癌不同于胸腺瘤、胸腺癌，临床诊断困难；病理学分典型和不典型胸腺类癌，两者临床表现和预后明显不同。不典型类癌恶性程度高，切除后容易复发和转移，预后较差。彻底切除肿瘤以及受侵的组织和器官，可以明显提高长期生存率。术后放疗、化疗有一定辅助作用。
Objective To investigate and evaluate the clinical manifestation, classification, surgical management and postoperative adjuvant therapy of thymic carcinoid, so as to improve the knowledge of the disease. Methods From January 1980 to January 2006, the outcome of surgery and follow-up of 18 cases of thymic carcinoid surgically intervened were retrospectively analysed. In this series, there were 2? exploratory thoracotomy, 2 partial or incomplete resection and 14 complete resections, which included 2 superior vena cava removal and reconstruction. The survival probabilities were calculated by the life tables, and a multivariable analysis of prognosis factors for thymic carcinoid was carried out using Cox regression model. Results Two patients who underwent exploratory thoracotomy died within one year and two years postoperatively respectively, 2 with partial or incomplete resection obtained temporary symptomatic improvement, 1 of 14 performed complete resections associated with Cushing’s syndrome died of septicemia in two weeks postoperatively, and the other 13 cases were in good condition by follow-up of 5 months to 15 years. The survival rate of 3, 5 and 10 years were 72.6%, 60.5% and 40.3%, respectively. According to Cox regression analysis, the factors of influence upon prognosis included lymph node metastasis(P=0047), pathological type(P=0.000), mode of resection (P=0.000) and postoperative adjuvant treatment(P=0018). Conclusion The thymic carcinoid is different from thymoma or thymic carcinoma, and there exist some difficulty in differential diagnosis. It is divided into typical and atypical thymic carcinoid in pathology, There are obvious differences in clinical manifestation and prognosis between typical and atypical carcinoid. The atypical thymic carcinoid has higher malignancy, frequent recurrence or metastasis, and poor prognosis. Complete resection of tumor with the involved surroundings could improve the long-term survival. The adjuvant radiotheraphy and chemotheraphy postoperatively would be benefit to the patients.
引用本文： 郭峰,张志庸,崔玉尚等. 胸腺类癌外科治疗的长期结果. 中国胸心血管外科临床杂志, 2007, 14(6): 422-. doi: 复制